How two butterflies became one

Here’s why you shouldn’t judge a butterfly species by its wing coloration.

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Video Concept and Writing: Rebecca Deatsman
Narration: Emily Elert
Illustration and Animation: Ever Salazar
Music: Nathaniel Schroeder

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC

White Admiral – Photo by: Wikimedia user Limulus
Limenitis arthemis astyanax – Wikimedia user Ks0stm
Red Spotted Purple – Wikimedia user Saxophlute
River rocks – Public Domain Photo
Pipevine Swallowtail – Public Domain Photo
Poison Symbol – Public Domain Image
Monarch Butterfly – U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Monarch butterfly catterpillar – Ryan E. Poplin
Lagopus muta Winter – Ómar Runólfsson
Lagopus muta Summer – Wikimedia user Boaworm
Sexual dimorphism Mandarin – Francis C. Franklin
Gray Wolf – Public Domain Photo
Maltese Dog – Wikimedia user SheltieBoy
Limenitis lorquini – Public Domain Photo
Limenitis archippus – Gordon E. Robertson

Emily Elert • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

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Andy Warren, pers. comm. July 29, 2014.

Brock, J. P., & Kaufman, K. (2003). Field Guide to Butterflies of North America.T. Hillstar Editions LC Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, NY.

Platt, A.P. and Brower, L.P. 1968. Mimetic Versus Disruptive Coloration in Intergrading Populations of Limenitis arthemis and Astyanax Butterflies. Evolution, Vol. 22, No. 4: 699-718.

Platt, A.P. 1987. Banded admirals from western Maryland: analysis of the Limenitis (Basilarchia) arthemis-astyanax complex (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) at green ridge state forest. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 89: 633-645.

Taxonomy of Red-Spotted Purple:
Taxonomy of White Admiral:
Info and Photos of Red-Spotted Purple:

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