Science

The Similarity Trap

Try Squarespace for free: http://squarespace.com/MinuteEarth
And subscribe to MinuteEarth! http://goo.gl/EpIDGd

As we try to figure out the evolutionary trees for languages and species, we sometimes get led astray by similar but unrelated words and traits.

Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Cladistics: A method of recreating evolutionary trees based on evidence about relationships.
Etymology: The study of the origin of words and how they have changed throughout history.
Convergent Evolution: A process whereby different species evolve similar traits in order to adapt to similar environments.
Polyphyly: A group containing members with multiple ancestral sources.
Homoplasy: A trait shared by a group of species that is not shared in their common ancestor.
False Cognates: Pairs of words with similar sounds and meanings but unrelated etymologies.
___________________________________________

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
A photographer who has taken amazing photos of unrelated people who look alike: http://mentalfloss.com/article/53774/photos-unrelated-people-who-look-exactly-alike
_________________________________________

Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC
And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert)
Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor
Video Director: David Goldenberg, Emily Elert
Video Narrator: Emily Elert
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

Image Credits:

Lappet-faced Vulture (Old World) – Steve Garvie
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Torgos_tracheliotos_-Masai_Mara_National_Reserve,_Kenya-8.jpg

Turkey vulture (New World) – Flickr User minicooper93402
turkey vulture

Crested Porcupine (Old World) – Flickr user 57777529@N02
https://www.flickr.com/photos/57777529@N02/5398915634

North American Porcupine (New World) – iStock.com/GlobalP
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/north-american-porcupine-or-canadian-porcupine-or-common-porcupine-walking-gm515605852-88578399

Chinchilla lanigera – Nicolas Guérin
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chinchilla_lanigera_(Wroclaw_zoo)-2.JPG

Naked Mole Rat – Roman Klementschitz
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nacktmull.jpg

Ganges river dolphin – Zahangir Alom, NOAA (Public Domain)
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Platanista_gangetica_noaa.jpg

Atlantic Spotted Dolphin – Flickr user 53344659@N05
Dolphind

Orcinus orcas – Robert Pittman, NOAA (Public Domain)
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Killerwhales_jumping.jpg

Euphorbia obesa – Frank Vincentz
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:E_obesa_symmetrica_ies.jpg

Astrophytum asterias – David Midgley
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Astrophytum_asterias1.jpg

Sweet William Dwarf – Nicholas M. Bashour
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spring_Flowers.JPG
___________________________________________

References:

Atkinson, Q. and Gray, R. (2005). Darimont, C., Fox, C., Bryan, H., and Reimchen, C. (2015). Curious Parallels and Curious Connections — Phylogenetic Thinking in Biology and Historical Linguistics. Systematic Biology. 54:5 (513-526). Retrieved from: https://academic.oup.com/sysbio/article/54/4/513/2842862

Atkinson, Quentin. (2018). Personal Communication. Department of Evolution and Human Behavior at the University of Auckland.

Bennu, D. (2004). The Evolution of Birds: An Overview of the Avian Tree of Life. Lab Animal. 33 (42-28)). Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/laban0504-42

De La Fuente, J.(2010). Urban legends: Turkish kayık ‘boat’ and “Eskimo” qayaq ‘kayak’. Studia Linguistica. 127 (7-24). Retrieved from: http://www.ejournals.eu/Studia-Linguistica/2010/2010/art/180/

Products You May Like

Articles You May Like

Challenging puzzle
POKÉ BALL BRA!! – Game LÜT #2
Egg Experiment to Demonstrate Inertia
Andrew Bastawrous: Get your next eye exam on a smartphone
How do we see yellow when there is no yellow light there?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *