How The Modern World Tricks Our Bodies Into Hurting Themselves

Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video!

The same enzyme that used to save us is now killing us because the body reactions it catalyzes now cause more harm than good.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons and our YouTube members.
To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Cyclooxygenase: An enzyme responsible for the production of thromboxane and prostaglandins.
Thromboxane: A lipid that acts as a platelet aggregator.
Platelets: Special non-nucleic blood cells that clump together to cause blood clots.
Prostaglandins: A lipid that causes vasodilation and inflammation.
Aspirin: A form of acetylsalicylic acid that acts as an NSAID.
NSAIDs: Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs that inhibit COX, and thus inflammation and clotting.
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Script Writer and Narrator: David Goldenberg
Video Illustrators: Ever Salazar and Sarah Berman
Video Directors: David Goldenberg and Ever Salazar
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich and Julián Gómez
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder:

Fitzpatrick, F. (2004). Cyclooxygenase Enzymes: Regulation and Function.Current Pharmaceutical Design. 10:577-588. Retrieved from:

Dubois, R., Abramson, S., Crofford, L., Gupta, R., Simon, L., Van De Putte, L., Lipsky, P. (1998). Cyclooxygenase in biology and disease. The FASEB Journal 212(12):1063-73. Retrieved from:

Havird, J., Kocot, K., Brannock, P., Cannon, J., Waits, D., Weese, D., Santos, S., Halanych, K. (2015). Reconstruction of cyclooxygenase evolution in animals suggests variable, lineage-specific duplications, and homologs with low sequence identity. 80(3-4):193-208. Retrieved from:

Ricciotti, E. and FitzGerald, G. (2011).Prostaglandins and Inflammation. ATVB In Focs. 31(5): 986–1000. Retrieved from:

Rao, P., and Knaus, E. (2008). Evolution of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibition and Beyond. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 11 (2): 81-110. Retrieved from:

Van’t Hof, J., Duval, S., Misialek, J., Oldenburg, N., Jones, C., Eder, M., Luepker, R. (2019). Aspirin Use for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in an African American Population: Prevalence and Associations with Health Behavior Beliefs. Journal of Community Health. 44(3):561-568. Retrieved from:

Leupker, R. (2019). Personal Communication. Minnesota Heart Health Program. University of Minnesota.

Chipman, J. (2019). Personal Communication. Department of Surgery. University of Minnesota.

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